Medical Brief: Canine tumor mutational burden is correlated with TP53 mutation across tumor types and breeds

Medical Brief: Canine tumor mutational burden is correlated with TP53 mutation across tumor types and breeds

Alsaihati, Burair A., Ho, Kun-Lin, et al. Nature Communications 2021. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24836-9

  • A pan-cancer, pan-breed analysis of canine tumors
  • 684 cases with matched tumor and normal samples analysed
  • Over 7 common cancers and over 35 popular breeds were included in this study
  • Most of the somatic mutations were tumor type-dependent and breed-independent
  • Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) is associated with p53 mutations
  • Some breeds of dog were confirmed via breed-specific germline variant analysis
  • While both osteosarcoma and oral melanoma both have frequent alterations in the p53 pathway, the genetic alterations are different
  • p53 is mutated in 50% of osteosarcoma cases
  • MDM2 is amplified in 45% of oral melanomas
  • p53 mutations are most common in hemanigosarcoma, with 59% of the tumors harboring a mutation in this gene
  • Canine TMB varies among tumor types but not dog breeds
  • The overall TMB is low as compared to human adult cancers
  • Osteosarcomas in Golden Retrievers have a higher TMB than do the same cancer in Rottweilers and Greyhounds

This paper is incredibly important as it is one of the first papers to evaluate tumor mutational burden in canine tumors. In addition, this paper demonstrates that somatic mutations were tumor-dependent and breed-independent.

Dr. Gerry Post

Dr. Gerry Post has been practicing veterinary medicine for over 25 years specializing in veterinary oncology. He currently serves as Chief Veterinary Officer at the One Health Company.

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